The League for the Independence of Vietnam, popularly known as the Việt Minh, was formed in 1941 as a coalition of anti-French, anti-Japanese political forces under the leadership of the Indochinese Communist Party. The Việt Minh seized control of Hanoi in August 1945 during the power vacuum in Indochina at the end of World War Two. In September 1945, Việt Minh networks began a guerilla war against the French army after the latter retook control of southern Vietnam (Cochinchina).

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