Buddhism is a central part of the belief systems of most Vietnamese. Buddhism played a major role in South Vietnamese politics. Buddhist leaders were important voices of opposition to the regime of Ngô Đình Diệm, and Dim's crackdown against Buddhist protest groups in the summer of 1963 was a major factor in the coup that brought down his government. The militias of the millenarian Buddhist Hòa Hảo sect were also a significant military force in parts of the western Mekong Delta during the First and Second Indochina Wars.

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