Vietnamese communism was the principal ideological and institutional opposition to the state of South Vietnam during its existence. The communist networks in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War dated from the rural resistance to the French during the First Indochina War (1946-1954). Although Ngô Đình Diệm successfully exposed and destroyed many of them during the late 1950s, growing disaffection to his policies and increased aid and involvement from North Vietnam revitalized South Vietnamese communism under the banner of the National Liberation Front.

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